Tag: theology

Arminianism- The F.A.C.T.S.

Arminianism- The F.A.C.T.S.

Many of my Calivnist Brethren, in their zeal to defend Scriptural Truth, often  and unfortunately mischaracterize the soteriology of the Arminians.

 

While I do disagree with them, as a Calvinist my own self, I emphatically oppose characterizing Arminians as heretics. In the link below, Dr. Brian Abasciano lays out Arminian Soteriology on behalf of the Society of Evangelical Arminians.

 

The F.A.C.T.S.

What is Dispensationalism (guest post from James Quiggle)

What is Dispensationalism (guest post from James Quiggle)

Dispensationalism views the world as a household run by God. Every household is run in a particular way, which we might call an “economy.”

From time to time God changes his economy—the way in which he runs his household—as human civilization develops. Those different economies are called “dispensations.” For example, we can see God ran his previous economy, the dispensation of the Mosaic Law, different than the way he runs his present economy, the dispensation of the NT church.

Dispensationalism as a theology is defined by three basic beliefs.

  1. The consistent application of the Literal hermeneutic (method of interpretation) to every Scripture and every doctrine. (In contrast, Reformed theology does not apply the Literal hermeneutic to eschatology—end times prophecy—but interprets by allegory or spiritualizing.)
  2. The NT church is not a new Israel, but a different people group in God’s plans. Dispensationalism believes God has a continuing plan for national ethic Israel and a different (but in some ways related) continuing plan for the NT church. (In contrast, Reformed theology believes the NT church has become the new Israel and God has transferred to the NT church all the promises he made to national ethic Israel, most now to be fulfilled spiritually, not literally.)
  3. The purpose of God in the world is his own glory. In contrast, Reformed theology, while it believes in God’s glory, believes God’s purpose in the world is salvation. Dispensationalism believes God gets glory not only from salvation but also from his justice on unsaved sinners, and how God leads his saved people in the world to victory over sin.

That is the basic outline.

What is Dispensational Theology

What is Dispensational Theology

The following is a guest post by James Quiggle:

Theology is the science that seeks to understand God and his interactions with his creation through systematic study of God’s revelation of himself in the Bible.

Dispensationalism is a systematic method of understanding history as a series of God-initiated economies, or “dispensations,” by consistently applying the principles of the grammatical-historical (literal) hermeneutic to all scriptures.

Dispensational theology is that branch of the science of theology that seeks to understand God and his interactions with his creation, as God has revealed himself in the Bible through a series of God-initiated economies, or “dispensations,” by consistently applying the principles of the grammatical-historical (literal) hermeneutic to all scriptures.

Biblical Theology Study Bible Review

Biblical Theology Study Bible Review

 

Three years ago, Zondervan and D.A. Carson released one of the most in-depth study Bibles that is available, the NIV Zondervan Study Bible. It has now been improved upon and re-released as the NIV Biblical Theology Study Bible. The name change was made to better reflect the intended purpose of the Bible. Doubtlessly, it also helped eliminate confusion between the NIZ Zondervan Study Bible and the NIV Study Bible which is also published by Zondervan.

Note: Zondervan provided a hard cover edition free of charge in exchange for an honest review. My opinions are my own.

Product Description from Zondervan

Discover how the details of Scripture come together to form God’s grand narrative of redemption! The NIV Biblical Theology Study Bible is an excellent resource for those seeking to understand the individual parts of Scripture, and how those parts join to create a cohesive whole. Deepen your knowledge of God’s Word with insightful book introductions, sectional introductions, and 20,000 study notes written by a team of over 60 trusted theologians and Bible scholars explaining specific verses and themes.

 

Features Include:

  • 28 theologically rich articles by authors such as Tim Keller and Kevin DeYoung
  • 20,000 verse-by-verse study notes
  • Hundreds of full-color photos
  • Over 90 Maps
  • Over 60 Charts
  • Book Introductions
  • Over 60 trusted contributors
  • Cross-references
  • Concordance
  • Single-column
  • Black Letter
  • Two ribbon markers
  • Zondervan NIV Comfort Print® typeface
  • 5 point Bible text; 6 point study notes text

Please Note: The NIV Biblical Theology Study Bible was previously published as the NIV Zondervan Study Bible. Study notes and content are the same. Updates include: the new Zondervan NIV Comfort Print® typeface; a new three-column layout; hundreds of pages thinner and more visually appealing.

 

The Font

This is the new Comfort Print Font from Harper Collins and, generally, it is phenomenal. I must confess, though, that I find it semi-challenging. While I can read it, my eyes get tired after around 30 minutes of use.

 

The Translation: NIV

NIV is brought to us by Biblica.  Here is some information from Biblica and my thoughts will follow:

  • ACCURATEThe NIV translators are united by their conviction that the Bible is God’s inspired Word. That, along with their years of studying biblical languages, helps them to capture subtle nuances and the depth of meaning in the Bible.
  • CLEARIf the first recipients understood God’s Word when they heard it, so should you. That’s the driving force behind the NIV’s commitment to clarity. The Bible should be every bit as clear to you as it was to its original audience.
  • BEAUTIFULBible reading isn’t just a solo exercise; it’s meant to be a shared experience. That’s why the NIV translators prioritize literary beauty, resulting in a Bible translation that’s suitable for public reading and use in churches.
  • TRUSTWORTHYThe NIV is translated by an independent, self-governing team of Bible scholars. No publisher, commercial or otherwise (not even us!), can tell them how to translate God’s Word. The translators come from dozens of denominations and churches, and they can only make changes to the text if 70% of the committee agrees — safeguarding against theological bias.

 

NIV and I are nearly the same age (1978 vs 1982) and so it is no stretch to say that I grew up with the NIV and I would say that a good many of my generation have as well. To be fair, the KJV and NASB have also been with me and I love all three.

NIV is incredibly easy to understand but it is still rigorous enough for the serious student of the Word to dig in, grow, and learn. I go back and forth with various translations and the main reason I keep coming to the NIV is its familiarity. NIV is both an old friend and a trusted source of wisdom and it lives up to Biblica’s statement that the Bible speaks.

I want to make a statement as a pastor: You can trust your NIV. There are well meaning Christians who will tell you that the NIV has been “corrupted” or something of the sort; it has not. New Greek manuscripts are being discovered regularly and, unlike other languages, English has a tendency to be fluid so, sometimes, it is needful to update. It is vital that you find a translation that you can read and understand and NIV will fill that place nicely.

 

CONTENT REVIEW

Introductions

There are Section Introductions and Book Introductions. The introductions are fairly in-depth including an excellent outline.

Study Notes

In addition to a biblical-theological focus, the study notes aid the reader in gaining a better grasp of the text within its biblical, theological, grammatical, cultural, and social context. There are 20,000 plus notes available and they are laid out in a 3-column format at the bottom portion of the page. The study notes are so detailed that every single category of Christian, from the new disciple to the seminary student, to a seasoned pastor will be able to benefit from the content.

Margin Content

The margin content contains three parts. First, there is room for personal note taking, assuming you have the ability to write in a small enough font. Secondly, the cross references are located in the outside of the margins. Thirdly, there are optional alternate readings of parts of verses.

Maps, Charts, and Pictures– These things are all over the place! They have a map for Jacob’s journey in Genesis, a chart for the hardening of Pharaoh’s heart in Exodus, a chart showing the distance in miles between OT cities, a picture of King Tut’s golden chariot in 2 Chronicles, a map and diagram of the familial house of Herod in Matthew, an extensive chart harmonizing the Gospels, and even a chart contrasting the Levitical priesthood with Jesus’ priesthood in Hebrews. The pictures are in full color. The more you read the text of Scripture the more you will see the value and helpfulness of the extensive charts. The chats are as helpful to understanding the text as the study notes.

Articles

The articles in the Biblical Theology Study Bible focus on 28 of the most common biblical-theological themes in the Bible. Themes like the gospel, the glory of God, creation, sin, law, covenant, priest, temple, justice, worship, and mission are expounded upon and set within the context of the whole revelation of Scripture.

Overall Thoughts

The Biblical Theology Study Bible is an excellent resource that definitely has a place in your pastoral ministry. There are some font challenges for me but they are not sufficient to degrade my opinion. I do recommend it but I will not tell you how to use it since there is not a wrong way to use it.

 

 

Dispensationalism (Guest Post by James Quiggle ThM)

Dispensationalism (Guest Post by James Quiggle ThM)

DISPENSATIONALISM DEFINED

Dispensational theology is a systematic theology describing the outworking of God’s plans and processes to accomplish his purpose in creating. Dispensations are part of Dispensationalism, but do not comprise the entire system. Dispensationalism is a way of thinking about how God manages his household, a way to interpret the Bible, and a way to understand God’s basic purpose in his dealings with mankind.

Many people confuse a dispensation and Dispensationalism.

— “A dispensation is a distinguishable economy in the outworking of God’s purpose [Ryrie, Dispensationalism, 28].

One might identify a dispensation in various ways. Erich Sauer provides several observations that help define how God changes his economies. He wrote, “a new period [dispensation] always begins only when from the side of God a change is introduced in the composition of the principles valid up to that time; that is, when from the side of God three things concur [Sauer, The Dawn of World Redemption, 194]:

— A continuance of certain ordinances valid until then;
— An annulment of other regulations until then valid;
— A fresh introduction of new principles not before valid.

There are several ways to name or number the dispensations. I identify the several dispensations with reference to the prominent persons and events with whom a dispensation began and ended. These are:

— Adam to Noah
— Noah to Abraham
— Abraham to Moses
— Moses to Christ’s resurrection
— Christ’s resurrection to rapture of the church
— Rapture to Christ’s second advent
— Christ’s Davidic-Messianic-Millennial reign to Christ the Judge at the Great White Throne Judgment (GWT)
— The eternal state (God eternally face-to-face with saved mankind) following the GWT

Certain dispensations might also be defined in terms of the covenants God made with mankind’s representatives.

—Adam to Noah (Adamic covenant)
—Noah to Abraham, (Post-Flood Noahic covenant)
—Abraham to Moses, (Abrahamic covenant)
—Moses to Christ’s resurrection (Mosaic, Palestinian, Davidic, and New covenants)
—Christ’s resurrection to rapture of the church (application of New covenant to individual Hebrews and Gentiles)
—Christ’s Davidic-Messianic-Millennial reign (fulfillment of Abrahamic, Davidic, Palestinian, and
—New covenants toward national ethnic Israel)

As may be seen from both lists, dispensations begin and end with a defining event that changes the economy of man’s stewardship responsibilities toward God’s revealed will.

Many people believe in dispensations and other parts of Dispensational theology, but cannot be described as Dispensationalists. Ryrie (Ryrie, Dispensationalism, 1995) states three absolutely indispensable parts of Dispensationalism. If a person does not hold to these three essentials, then he or she is not a Dispensationalist. These essentials are [Ryrie, Dispensationalism, 39–40]:

— A Dispensationalist keeps Israel and the church distinct.
— The distinction between Israel and the church is born out of a system of hermeneutics [interpretation] that is usually called literal interpretation.
— The underlying purpose of God in the world is the glory of God.

“The essence of dispensationalism, then, is the distinction between Israel and the church. This grows out of the dispensationalist’s consistent employment of normal or plain or historical-grammatical interpretation [the literal hermeneutic], and it reflects an understanding of the basic purpose of God in all his dealings with mankind as that of glorifying Himself through salvation and other purposes as well” [Ryrie, Dispensationalism, 41].

Any person identifying him or herself as a classical Dispensationalist should agree with the three distinctives that compose this definition.

Michael Vlach in his book, “Dispensationalism, Essential Beliefs and Common Myths,” presents “Six Essential Beliefs of Dispensationalism” (pp. 30–50, see for his very helpful discussion). These six are:

— The primary meaning of any Bible passage is found in that passage. The New Testament does not reinterpret of transcend Old Testament passages in a way that overrides of cancels the original authorial intent of the Old Testament writers.
— Types exist but national Israel is not an inferior type that is superseded by the church.
— Israel and the church are distinct; thus, the church cannot be identified as the new and/or true Israel.
— Spiritual unity in salvation between Jews and Gentiles is compatible with a future functional role for Israel as a nation.
— The nation Israel will be both saved and restored with a unique functional role in a future earthly millennial kingdom.
— There are multiple senses of “seed of Abraham,” thus the church’s identification as “seed of Abraham” does not cancel God’s promises to the believing Jewish “see of Abraham.”

Vlach’s later book “Has the Church Replaced Israel?” expands on these themes giving them greater clarity, scriptural explanation, and defence.

I highly recommend the books by Ryrie and Vlach. (Some information in this essay is from my book, James D. Quiggle, “Dispensational Eschatology, An Explanation and Defense of the Doctrine.”

A Brief Intro to Prevenient Grace

A Brief Intro to Prevenient Grace

In response to some things I have seen on social media lately, I want to address Prevenient Grace. We will deal with three primary questions: What is Prevenient Grace? Is Prevenient Grace a biblical idea? Is Prevenient Grace distinctly an Arminian doctrine?

Let’s begin with a definition of Prevenient Grace. We will quote the definition found at Theopedia.

“Prevenient grace refers to the grace of God in a person’s life that precedes conversion (or salvation). The word “prevenient,” considered an archaic term today, was common in the King James English and simply means to “go before” or “precede.” Likewise, it is sometimes called “preventing” grace (from prevenient) with the same meaning.

  • In Reformed Theology, it is the particular grace which precedes human decision — a salvific grace prior to, and without reference to, anything we have done.
  • In Arminianism and Wesleyanism, it is a grace that offsets the noetic effects of the Fall, restores man’s free will, and thus enables every person to choose to come to Christ or not. There are two forms of this view:
    • Universal prevenient grace — This grace is extended to every person.
    • Individualistic prevenient grace — This grace is only extended to those who come under the intelligent hearing of the gospel, and not to every person.

We can see, already, that Prevenient Grace is a doctrinal position of both Calvinists (Reformed Theology) and our Arminian brethren. Permit me to expand for a moment on the Calvinist side of things: Prevenient Grace is, literally, grace that is preceding, but preceding what? This is actually the grace that we refer to as being irresistible. God, in an act of preceding grace, elects, calls, and regenerates those whom He has chosen.”

 

In Arminian Soteriology, Prevenient Grace is referred to in the F of the F.A.C.T.S of salvation. The Arminian Theologian would say that we are freed by the Grace of God to respond with an act of our own volition and “choose” to respond to the Gospel call.

 

The sad irony is that most of my teaching brethren do not know their theology well enough to realize that the two perspectives are so closely related that they are most likely two halves of the same sandwich…

 

In both Calvinism and Arminianism, saving grace is 100% a choice and act of God. In both cases Prevenient Grace precedes regeneration and justification. The major question, and point of disagreement, is the effect of Prevenient Grace on the will i.e. does Prevenient Grace restore man’s free will and thus allow said grace to be resisted or is Prevenient Grace irresistible as the Calvinist teaches.

 

As a Calvinist, I do not believe grace can be resisted. Since it is antecedent to salvation and a corollary of election, Prevenient Grace cannot be resisted.

 

Prevenient Grace is entirely Biblical and it is not a distinctly Arminian doctrine. For further study, I would refer you to the Foundations of Doctrine Series.

Names of Christ

Names of Christ

Before His Exaltation

ABRAHAM’S SEED – Gal. 3:16; Heb. 2:16

ALIVE FOR EVERMORE – Rev. 1:18

ALL IN ALL – Col. 3:11

ALMIGHTY (EL SHADDAI) – Gen. 35:11, Ex. 6:3

ALPHA AND OMEGA – Rev.1:8, 1:11, 21:6, 22:13

AMEN – Rev. 3:14

ANCIENT OF DAYS – Dan. 7:9, 7:13, 7:22

ANGEL OF GOD – Gen. 21:17, Ex. 14:19, Dan. 3:28

ANGEL OF HIS PRESENCE – Isa. 63:9

ANGEL OF THE LORD – Gen.16:7, Ex. 3:2, Isa. 37:36

ANOINTED – Psa. 2:2, Acts 4:27

BEFORE ALL THINGS – Col. 1:17

BEGINNING – Col. 1:18, Rev.1:8, 21:6, 22:13, 3:14

BELOVED – Isa. 5:1, Matt. 3:17, Mark 1:11, Luke 3:22

BLESSED POTENTATE – 1 Tim. 6:15

BRANCH – Isa. 4:2 , 11:1, Jer. 23:5, 33:15, Zech. 3:8

BREAD – John 6:33, 6:32, 6:41, 6:35, 48

BRIDEGROOM – Matt. 9:15, Mark 2:19, Luke 5:34

BRIGHT AND MORNING STAR – Rev. 22:16

BRIGHTNESS OF HIS GLORY – Heb. 1:3

BUCKLER – 2 Sam. 22:31, Psa. 18:2, Prov. 2:7

CAPTAIN OF THE LORD OF HOSTS – Josh. 5:1

CARPENTER – Mark 6:3

CARPENTER’S SON – Matt. 13:55

CHRIST – Matt. 16:16, Luke 20:41, John 6:69

CHRIST JESUS – Acts 19:4, Rom. 3:24, Gal. 2:4

CHRIST JESUS LORD – 2 Cor. 4:5, Col. 2:6

CHRIST THE LORD – Luke 2:11

CHOSEN – Matt. 12:18, Luke 23:35, 1 Pet. 2:4

CLOTHED WITH MAJESTY – Psa. 93:1; 104:1

COMMANDER – Isa. 55:4

CORNERSTONE – Psa. 118:22, Isa. 28:16, Eph. 2:20

COUNSELOR – Isa. 9:6

CREATOR – Isa.40:28, 43:15, Rom. 1:25, 1 Pet. 4:19

CROWN OF GLORY – Isa. 28:5

DAVID – Jer. 30:9, Ezek. 34:23

DAY STAR – 2 Pet. 1:19

DAYSPRING – Luke 1:78

DEFENCE – Job 22:25, Psa. 59:16, 62:2, 89:18, 94:22

DESIRE OF ALL NATIONS – Hag. 2:7

DELIVERER– Psa. 18:2, 40:17, 70:5, 144:2, Rom. 11:26

DIADEM OF BEAUTY – Isa. 28:5

DOOR – John 10:7

DWELLING PLACE – Psa. 90:1

ELECT – Isa. 42:1, 1 Pet. 2:6

EMMANUEL – Isa. 7:14, 8:8, Matt. 1:23

END – Rev. 21:6, 22:13

ENSIGN – Isa. 11:10, 11:12

EQUAL WITH GOD – John 5:18, Phil. 2:6

ETERNAL GOD – Deut. 33:27

EETERNAL LIFE – 1 John 1:2, 5:20

EVERLASTING FATHER – Isa. 9:6

FAITHFUL– Deut. 7:9, Isa. 49:7, 1 John 1:9, Rev. 19:11

FATHER OF GLORY, THE – Eph. 1:17

FINISHER OF OUR FAITH – Heb. 12:2

FIRST – Rev. 1:11, 1:17, 2:8, 22:13

FIRST AND THE LAST – Isa. 48:12

FIRST BEGOTTEN – Rev. 1:5

FORERUNNER – Heb. 6:20

FORTRESS– 2 Sam. 22:2, Psa. 18:2, 31:3, 71:3, Jer. 16:19

FOUNDATION– Isa. 28:16, 1 Cor. 3:11

FOUNTAIN– Zech. 13:1

FRIEND– Prov. 18:24, Matt. 11:19, Luke 7:34

GIFT OF GOD – 2 Cor. 9:15

GOD– Gen. 22:8, Deut. 6:4, Jn. 1:1, Rom. 5:8, Phil. 2:6

GOOD SHEPHERD – John 10:11, 10:14

GREAT GOD – Neh. 8:6, Psa. 95:3, Tit. 2:13, Rev. 19:17

HEAD OF THE CORNER – Matt. 21:42

HIGH PRIEST – Heb. 2:17, 4:14-15, 6:20, 7:26, 8:1, 9:119

HEIR – Mic. 1:15, Matt. 21:38, Mark 12:7, Luke 20:14

HOLY ONE – Isa. 40:25, Hab. 1:12, Acts 3:14

HOLY ONE OF GOD – Mark 1:24, Luke 4:34

HOLY ONE OF ISRAEL – Isa. 5:24, 12:6, 54:5

HOLY ONE OF JACOB – Isa. 29:23

HOPE OF ISRAEL – Jer. 14:8, 17:13

HORN OF DAVID – Psa. 18:2, 132:17, 18:2, 1 Sam. 2:10,

I AM – Ex. 3:14, John 8:58

IMAGE OF GOD – 2 Cor. 4:4

IMAGE OF THE INVISIBLE GOD – Col. 1:15

IMMANUEL – Isa. 7:14, 8:8

ISRAEL Isa. 49:3, Hos. 11:1, Matt. 2:15

JEHOVAH – Ex. 6:3, Psa. 83:18

JESUS – Matt. 4:23, Mark 6:4, Luke 1:31

JESUS CHRIST – John 17:3, Acts 2:38, Rom. 6:23

JESUS CHRIST OF NAZARETH – Acts 3:6, 4:10

JESUS CHRIST OUR SAVIOR – Tit. 3:6

JESUS CHRIST THE SON OF GOD – Mark 1:1

JESUS THE SON OF GOD – Heb. 4:14

JESUS OF NAZARETH – Matt. 26:71, Acts 2:22

JUDGE OF ISRAEL – Mic. 5:1

JUST MAN – Matt. 27:19

JUST PERSON – Matt. 27:24

JUST ONE – Acts 3:14, 7:52, 22:14

KING – Isa. 43:15, Zech. 9:9, Matt. 21:5, 25:34, Acts17:7

KING OF GLORY – Psa. 24:7, 24:8, 24:9, 24:10

KING OF ISRAEL – Matt. 27:42, Mark 15:32, John 1:49,

KING OF JACOB – Isa. 41:21

KING OF KINGS – I Tim. 6:15, Rev. 17:14, 19:16

KING OF THE JEWS – Matt. 27:37; Luke 23:3

LAMB OF GOD – John 1:29, 1:36

LAST ADAM (SECOND ADAM) – 1 Cor. 15:45

LAWGIVER – Isa. 33:22

LEADER – Isa. 55:4

LIFE– John 11:25, 14:6

LIGHT – John 1:4, 1:7, 1:8, 1:9

LIGHT OF THE WORLD – John 8:12, 9:5

LION OF THE TRIBE OF JUDA – Rev. 5:5

LORD AND SAVIOR – II Pet. 1:11, 2:20, 3:2, 3:18

LORD JEHOVAH – Isa. 12:2, 26:4

LORD JESUS – Luke 24:3, Acts 1:21, Rom. 10:9

LORD GOD OF GODS – Josh. 22:22

LORD JESUS CHRIST – Acts 16:31, Phil. 3:20, Jude 21

LORD OF THE HARVEST – Matt. 9:38, Luke 10:2

LORD OF PEACE – II Thess. 3:16

MAN CHRIST JESUS – I Tim. 2:5

MASTER – Matt. 8:19, 12:38, 22:36, Mark 9:38, Eph. 6:9

MEDIATOR – I Tim. 2:5, Heb. 12:24

MESSENGER OF THE COVENANT – Mal. 3:1

MESSIAH – Dan. 9:25, 9:26

MESSIAS – John 1:41, 4:25-26

MIGHTY GOD – Isa. 9:6

MIGHTY ONE OF JACOB – Isa. 49:26

MORNING STAR – Rev. 22:16

MY LORD AND MY GOD – John 20:28

NAZARENE – Matt. 2:23

OFFSPRING OF DAVID – Rev. 22:16

OMEGA – Rev. 22:13

ONLY BEGOTTEN OF THE FATHER – John 1:14

ONLY BEGOTTEN SON – John 1:18, 3:16, 1 John 4:9

OUR HOPE – 1 Tim. 1:1

OUR LIFE – Col. 3:4

OUR PEACE – Eph. 2:14

PEACE (YHWH SHALOM) – Judg. 6:24

PHYSICIAN – Luke 4:23

PORTION OF JACOB – Jer. 10:16, 51:19

PRINCE AND SAVIOR – Acts 5:31

PRINCE OF PEACE – Isa. 9:6

PRINCE OF PRINCES – Dan. 8:25

PRINCE OF THE KINGS OF THE EARTH– Rev. 1:5

PROPHET – Deut.18:18, Matt. 21:11, Luke 24:19

RABBI – Matt. 23:7, 23:8, John 1:38, 1:49

RABBONI – John 20:16

RANSOM – Matt. 20:28, Mark 10:45, I Tim. 2:6

REDEEMER – Isa. 48:17, 49:7, 49:26, 54:5, 59:20, 63:9

RESURRECTION – John 11:25

RIGHTEOUS BRANCH – Jer. 23:5

RIGHTEOUS JUDGE – II Tim. 4:8

ROCK OF SALVATION – Deut. 32:15, Psa. 89:26, 95:1

ROCK OF ISRAEL – II Sam. 23:3

ROD OUT OF THE STEM – Isa. 11:10

ROOT-Isa 53:2

ROOT AND OFFSPRING OF DAVID – Rev. 22:16

ROOT OF DAVID – Rev. 5:5

ROOT OF JESSE – Isa. 11:10, Rom. 15:12

RULER – Matt. 2:6

SERVANT – Isa. 42:1, Isa. 49:3, Isa. 52:13

SHEPHERD – Ps. 23:1, 80:1, I Pet. 2:25

SHILOH – Gen. 49:10

SON OF ABRAHAM – Matt. 1:1, Luke 19:9

SON OF DAVID – Matt. 1:1, 9:27, 15:22, 20:30, 21:9,

SON OF GOD-Dan. 3:25, Matt. 4:3, Mark 3:11

SON OF JOSEPH – John 1:45, 6:42

SON OF MARY – Mark 6:3

SON OF THE BLESSED – Mark 14:61

SON OF THE HIGHEST – Luke 1:32

SON OF THE LIVING GOD – Matt. 16:16, John 6:69

SON OF THE MOST HIGH GOD Mark 5:7

SPIRIT OF GOD – Rom. 8:9, 8:14, 15:19

STAR – Num. 24:17

TENDER PLANT-Isa 53:2

TRUE VINE – John 15:1

TRUTH – John 14:6

VINE – John 15:5

WAY – John 14:6

WITNESS – Isa. 55:4

WONDERFUL – Isa. 9:6

WORD – Jn 1:1

WORD OF GOD – Rev. 19:13

WORD OF LIFE – 1 John 1:1

 

Suffering of the Messiah

ACQUAINTED WITH GRIEF-Isa 53:3

AFFLICTED-Isa 53:4

BRUISED-Isa 53:5

DESPISED-Isa 53:3

FORSAKEN-Psalms 22:1

GRIEF BEARER-Isa 53:4

HEALER-Isa 53:5

LAMB – Rev. 5:6, 5:12, 7:9, 7:14

LAMB OF GOD – John 1:29, 1:36

LIFE – John 11:25, 14:6

MAN OF SORROWS-Isa 53:3

OFFERING-Isa 53:10

POURED OUT ONE-Psalm 22:14

REJECTED-Isa 53:3

RIGHTEOUS SERVANT-Isa 53:11

SILENT ONE-Isa 53:7

SMITTEN-Isa 53:4

SORROW CARRIER-Isa 53:4

STRICKEN-Isa 53:4

TRAVAILED-Isa 53:11

WORM-Psalms 22:6

WOUNDED-Isa 53:5

 

Messiah’s Post Resurrection Exaltation

ADVOCATE – 1 John 2:1

APOSTLE – Heb. 3:1

AUTHOR – Heb. 5:9, 12:2

CAPTAIN OF SALVATION – Heb. 2:10

CHIEF SHEPHERD – 1 Pet. 5:4

END OF THE LAW – Rom. 10:4

FAITHFUL WITNESS – Rev. 1:5, 3:14

FIRSTBORN – Rom. 8:29, Col. 1:15, 1:18

FIRSTFRUIT – Rom. 11:16

GREAT SHEPHERD – Heb. 13:20

HEAD OF THE CHURCH – Eph. 5:23

LAMB – Rev. 5:6, 5:12, 7:9, 7:14

LORD OF GLORY – 1 Cor. 2:8, Jam. 2:1

OUR PASSOVER – I Cor. 5:7

PRINCE OF LIFE – Acts 3:15

SAVIOR – Isa. 43:3, Luke 1:47, John 4:42, Acts 5:31

SAVIOR JESUS CHRIST – II Tim. 1:10, Tit. 2:13

TRUE GOD – I John 5:20

 

Chosen for Salvation

Chosen for Salvation

There is a teaching, which I have come to embrace, that may well be the most divisive in the church, that of Unconditional Sovereign Election or as I call it, being chosen for salvation. On both sides of the soteriological coin, we see that God chooses some to be saved from wrath and damnation, so that is not debated. What is debated however, are the twin doctrines of election and grace. I would like to look, briefly at these…

The Belgic Confession teaches us:

  1. Of Eternal Election

We believe that all the posterity of Adam being thus fallen into perdition and ruin, by the sin of our first parents, God then did manifest himself such as he is; that is to say, merciful and just: Merciful, since he delivers and preserves from this perdition all, whom he, in his eternal and unchangeable counsel of mere goodness, has elected in Christ Jesus our Lord, without any respect to their works: Just, in leaving others in the fall and perdition wherein they have involved themselves.

The Scriptures Declare:

  • II Thessalonians 2:13: God chose you from the beginning unto salvation in sanctification of the Spirit and belief of the truth.
  • Matthew 24:24: There shall arise false Christs, and false prophets, and shall show great signs and wonders; so as to lead astray, if possible, even the elect.
  • Matthew 24:31: And they (the angels) shall gather together His elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.
  • Mark 13:20: For the elect’s sake, whom He chose, He shortened those days (at the destruction of Jerusalem).
  • I Thessalonians 1:4: Knowing, brethren, beloved of God, your election.
  • Romans 11:7: The elect obtained it, and the rest were hardened.
  • I Timothy 5:21: I charge thee in the sight of God, and Jesus Christ, and the elect angels.
  • Romans 8:33: Who shall lay anything to the charge of God’s elect?
  • Romans 11:5: (In comparison with Elijah’s time) Even so at the present time also there is a remnant according to the election of grace.
  • II Timothy 2:10: I endure all things for the elect’s sake.
  • Titus 1:1: Paul, a servant of God, and an apostle of Jesus Christ, according to the faith of God’s elect.
  • I Peter 1:1: Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the elect.
  • I Peter 5:13: She that is in Babylon, elect together with you.
  • I Peter 2:9: But ye are an elect race.
  • I Thessalonians 5:9: For God appointed us not unto wrath, but unto the obtaining of salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ.
  • Acts 13:48: And as the Gentiles heard this, they were glad, and glorified the word of God; and as many as were ordained to eternal life believed.
  • John 17:9: I (Jesus) pray not for the world, but for those whom thou hast given me; for they are thine.
  • John 6:37: All that the Father giveth me shall come unto me.
  • John 6:65: No man can come unto me except it be given unto him of the Father.
  • John 13:18: I speak not of you all; I know whom I have chosen.
  • John 15:16: Ye did not choose me, but I chose you.
  • Ps 105:6: Ye children of Jacob, His chosen ones.
  • Rom. 9:23: Vessels of mercy, which He afore prepared unto glory.

Further…

Ephesians 1:3-15

3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ: 4 According as he hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before him in love:

5 Having predestinated us unto the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will, 6 To the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein he hath made us accepted in the beloved. 7 In whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace; 8 Wherein he hath abounded toward us in all wisdom and prudence; 9 Having made known unto us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure which he hath purposed in himself: 10 That in the dispensation of the fulness of times he might gather together in one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and which are on earth; even in him: 11 In whom also we have obtained an inheritance, being predestinated according to the purpose of him who worketh all things after the counsel of his own will:

12 That we should be to the praise of his glory, who first trusted in Christ. 13 In whom ye also trusted, after that ye heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation: in whom also after that ye believed, ye were sealed with that Holy Spirit of promise, 14 Which is the earnest of our inheritance until the redemption of the purchased possession, unto the praise of his glory.

 

Romans 9:11-14

11 (For the children being not yet born, neither having done any good or evil, that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works, but of him that calleth;) 12 It was said unto her, The elder shall serve the younger. 13 As it is written, Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated. 14 What shall we say then? Is there unrighteousness with God? God forbid.

I almost feel like commenting further would be to presume upon the Scripture as if I, who am less than the least of the righteous, could add anything to the Word of the Lord. On many occasions, I have heard Dr. Sproul say that the question should not be “Is Jesus the only way? or Why is Jesus the only way? but that the question, rather, ought to be, “Why should there be any way of salvation at all?” I would say the same of election. It is no marvel that God should save some and allow others to be damned; it is a marvel that He should save any at all.

We believe and teach that man is totally depraved and unable to choose to do right; in our flesh dwells no good thing (Romans 7:18), there is none who does what is right on his own (Romans 3:10). In Isaiah 64:6 we see that our righteousness is as filthy rags. Now let me be blunt; that is the very cleaned up version that you will see in your Bible. What it actually says is that all our righteousness is like menstrual cloths, not a pretty thing to think about. We are, basically, hopeless and helpless. But…

“God, before the foundation of the world, chose to make certain individuals the objects of His unmerited favor or special grace (Mark 13:20; Ephesians 1:4-5; Revelation 13:8; Revelation 17:8). These individuals from every tribe, tongue and nation were chosen by God for adoption, not because of anything they would do but because of His sovereign will (Romans 9:11-13; Romans 9:16; Romans 10:20; 1 Corinthians 1:27-29; 2 Timothy 1:9). God could have chosen to save all men (He certainly has the power and authority to do so), and He could have chosen to save no one (He is under no obligation to save anyone). He instead chose to save some and leave others to the consequences of their sin (Exodus 33:19; Deuteronomy 7:6-7; Romans 9:10-24; Acts 13:48; 1 Peter 2:8).” {gotquestions.org}

I would be a first rate liar if I said this wasn’t difficult, especially since I am fairly certain that some people, who were very close to me in life, were most probably not elect. Being absolutely 100% honest with you, beloved, I have not a clue why God saves some and not others; neither do I have even the tiniest fraction of a clue how He decided whom He would elect. There are certain things which God keeps only to Himself and, while we may someday get a clue and understand why He allows things to be thus and so, we sometimes must do what is, honestly, difficult sometimes and that is to trust that the Holy God knows exactly what He is doing and will get the glory due Him alone.

Foundations 4: The Divine Son

Foundations 4: The Divine Son

The earliest Creeds/Statements of Faith of the Church teach a belief in the Trinity. In this week’s lesson, we are looking at the 2nd Person of the Trinity. Prior to the Incarnation, His identity was shrouded in the mystery of the Godhead. Since the Incarnation, we now refer to Him by the Name by which He was known on Earth, the Lord Jesus Christ.

Jesus Christ, the second person of the Trinity, possesses all the attributes of the Godhead, and in/because of these He is coequal, consubstantial, and coeternal with the Father (John 10:3014:9).

  • He is eternal (John 1:1-3 with 1 John 1:1-4, John 1:15, John 8:58, John 17:5, 24, Hebrews 1:11)
  • He is omnipresent (John 3:13, Matthew 18:20, Ephesians 1:23)
  • He is omniscient (John 16:30, John 21:17, Colossians 2:3, John 4:29, Luke 6:8)
  • He is omnipotent (John 5:19, Hebrews 1:2-3, Matthew 28:18)
  • He is immutable (Hebrews 1:12, Hebrews 13:8)
  • Creator and Sustainer (John 1:3, Colossians 1:15-17, Hebrews 1:3, 10 Psalm 33:6
  • Jesus Christ has the prerogatives of God (Matthew 9:2, 6; Luke 7:47- John 5:25-29 John 6:39, John 11:25-26 John 5:22

 

Jesus names Himself as God and explains I AM in John’s Gospel (Exodus 3:14)

  • the Bread of Life (6:35, 41)
  • the Light of the world (8:12)
  • the Good Shepherd (10:11, 14)
  • the Door (10:7, 9)
  • the Way the Truth and the Life (14:6)
  • the Resurrection and the Life (11:25-26)
  • the True Vine (15:1)
  • John 8:24
  • John8:58

Eternal Sonship (gotquestions.org)

The doctrine of eternal Sonship simply affirms that the second Person of the triune Godhead has eternally existed as the Son. In other words, there was never a time when He was not the Son of God, and there has always been a Father/Son relationship within the Godhead. This doctrine recognizes that the idea of Sonship is not merely a title or role that Christ assumed at some specific point in history, but that it is the essential identity of the second Person of the Godhead. According to this doctrine, Christ is and always has been the Son of God.

Yes, the eternal Sonship is biblical and is a view that is widely held among Christians and has been throughout church history. It is important, however, to remember when discussing the doctrine of eternal Sonship that there are evangelical Christians on both sides of this debate. This is not to say that this is not an important doctrine, because it is; it simply acknowledges the fact that there are orthodox or evangelical Christians that hold or have held both views. Those that deny the doctrine of eternal Sonship are not denying the triune nature of God or the deity or eternality of Christ, and those that embrace the eternal Sonship of Christ are not inferring that Jesus Christ was anything less than fully God.

Throughout church history the doctrine of eternal Sonship has been widely held, with most Christians believing that Jesus existed as God’s eternal Son before creation. It is affirmed in the Nicene Creed (325 A.D.) which states: “We believe in one God, the Father, the Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, of all that is, seen and unseen. We believe in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the only Son of God, eternally begotten of the Father, God from God, Light from Light, true God from true God, begotten, not made, of one Being with the Father. Through him all things were made. For us and for our salvation he came down from heaven: by the power of the Holy Spirit he became incarnate from the Virgin Mary, and was made man. For our sake he was crucified under Pontius Pilate; he suffered death and was buried. On the third day he rose again in accordance with the Scriptures; he ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father. He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead, and his kingdom will have no end.” It was also later reaffirmed in the fifth century in the Athanasian Creed.

There is considerable biblical evidence to support the eternal Sonship of Christ. First of all, there are many passages that clearly identify that it was “the Son” who created all things (Colossians 1:13-16Hebrews 1:2), thereby strongly implying that Christ was the Son of God at the time of creation. When one considers these passages, it seems clear that the most normal and natural meaning of the passages is that at the time of creation Jesus was the Son of God, the second Person of the Triune Godhead, thus supporting the doctrine of eternal Sonship.

Second, there are numerous verses that speak of God the Father sending the Son into the world to redeem sinful man (John 20:21Galatians 4:41 John 4:141 John 4:10) and giving His Son as a sacrifice for sin (John 3:16). Clearly implied in all the passages that deal with the Father sending/giving the Son is the fact that He was the Son before He was sent into the world. This is even more clearly seen in Galatians 4:4-6, where the term “sent forth” is used both of the Son and the Spirit. Just as the Holy Spirit did not become the Holy Spirit when He was sent to empower the believers at Pentecost, neither did the Son become the Son at the moment of His incarnation. All three Persons of the Triune Godhead have existed for all eternity, and their names reveal who they are, not simply what their title or function is.

Third, 1 John 3:8 speaks of the appearance or manifestation of the Son of God: “the one who practices sin is of the devil; for the devil has sinned from the beginning. The Son of God appeared for this purpose, that He might destroy the works of the devil.” The verb “to make manifest” or “appeared” means to make visible or to bring to light something that was previously hidden. The idea communicated in this verse is not that the second Person of the trinity became the Son of God, but that the already existing Son of God was made manifest or appeared in order to fulfill God’s predetermined purpose. This idea is also seen in other verses such as John 11:27 and 1 John 5:20.

Fourth, Hebrews 13:8 teaches that “Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today, yes and forever.” This verse, again, seems to support the doctrine of eternal Sonship. The fact that Jesus’ divine nature is unchanging would seem to indicate that He was always the Son of God because that is an essential part of His Person. At the incarnation Jesus took on human flesh, but His divine nature did not change, nor did His relationship with the Father. This same truth is also implied in John 20:31, where we see John’s purpose in writing his gospel was so that we might “believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing you may have life in His name.” It does not say that He became the Son of God but that He is the Son of God. The fact that Jesus was and is the Son of God is an essential aspect of Who He is and His work in redemption.

Finally, one of the strongest evidences for the eternal Sonship of Christ is the triune nature of God and the eternal relationship that exists among the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Particularly important is the unique Father/Son relationship that can only be understood from the aspect of Christ’s eternal Sonship. This relationship is key to understanding the full measure of God’s love for those whom He redeems through the blood of Christ. The fact that God the Father took His Son, the very Son He loved from before the foundation of the world, and sent Him to be a sacrifice for our sins is an amazing act of grace and love that is best understood from the doctrine of eternal Sonship.

One verse that speaks of the eternal relationship between the Father and Son is John 16:28. “I came forth from the Father, and have come into the world; I am leaving the world again, and going to the Father.” Implied in this verse is again the fact that the Father/Son relationship between God the Father and God the Son is one that always has and always will exist. At His incarnation the Son “came from the Father” in the same sense as upon His resurrection He returned “to the Father.” Implied in this verse is the fact that if Jesus was the Son after the resurrection, then He was also the Son prior to His incarnation. Other verses that support the eternal Sonship of Christ would include John 17:5 and John 17:24, which speak of the Father’s love for the Son from “before the foundation of the world.”

After one considers the many arguments for the doctrine of eternal Sonship, it should become clear that this is indeed a biblical doctrine that finds much support in Scripture. However, that is not to imply that arguments cannot be made against the doctrine as well, or that all Christians will agree to this doctrine. While it has been the view of the majority of Christian commentators throughout history, there have been several prominent Christians on the other side of the issue as well.

The term, “son of God,” occurs more than 40 times in the Bible, all of them in the New Testament. The phrase is found in the KJV in Dan. 3:25, but the Hebrew word of God is actually in the plural so it should read, “son of the gods.” So, what do we find when we examine the phrase in the New Testament?

  • Jesus Christ is the Son of God, ( 26:63, Mark 1:1, John 20:31, Heb. 4:14).
  • Unclean spirits would fall down before Jesus and say, “You are the Son of God,” (Mark 3:11).
  • “ . . . the holy offspring shall be called the Son of God,” (Luke 1:35).
  • Adam is said to be the son of God (Luke 3:38).
  • Those who hear the voice of the Son of God shall live (John 5:25).
  • Paul had faith in the Son of God ( 2:20).
  • Son of God has no beginning or end ( 7:3).
  • The Son of God appeared to destroy the works of the devil (1 John 3:8).
  • Believe in the Son of God so that you may have eternal life (1 John 5:13).

We can see that the term refers to the majesty, position, and power of Jesus who is holy (Luke 1:35), associated with salvation (John 5:25) and that we are to have faith in the Son of God (Gal. 2:20) so as to have eternal life (1 John 5:13) and that He has no beginning or end (Heb. 7:3).

The only exception to this flow of exultation is Luke 3:38 when it says Adam was the “Son of God,” but here the context is a genealogy, and we know that Adam was the first man created by God.

Furthermore, in reference to Jesus, the term, “Son of God,” does not mean that Jesus is the literal offspring of God as if God had some form of sexual relations with Mary to produce Jesus. God is spirit (John 4:24), and spirit does not have flesh and bones (Luke 24:39), so God the Father is not the literal father of Jesus.

Jesus can be both God and the Son of God because the terms don’t mean the same thing. When we say that Jesus is God (John 1:114Colossians 2:9Hebrews 1:8), we are saying that Jesus possesses the divine nature (as well as a human nature, see hypostatic union). But the term, “Son of God,” does not mean that Jesus is not God. Think about it. If the term, “Son of God,” meant that Jesus is not God, then does the term, “Son of Man,” mean that Jesus is not a man? Of course not. Likewise, if the term, “Son of Man,” means that Jesus is a man, then does it not imply that when it says that Jesus is the “Son of God,” that He is God? We ought not look at the ancient words found in Scripture and judge them by modern thinking.

“For this reason therefore the Jews were seeking all the more to kill Him, because He not only was breaking the Sabbath, but also was calling God His own Father, making Himself equal with God,” (John 5:18).

As you can see in this verse, Jesus was calling God His own Father, making Himself equal to God. Therefore, the term, Son of God, is a designation of the equality with God when it is a reference to Christ.

Those that deny the doctrine of eternal Sonship would instead hold to a view that is often referred to as the Incarnational Sonship, which teaches that while Christ preexisted, He was not always the Son of God. Those that hold this view believe Christ became the Son of God at some point in history, with the most common view being that Christ became the Son at His incarnation. However, there are others who believe Christ did not become the Son until sometime after His incarnation, such as at His baptism, His resurrection, or His exaltation. It is important to realize that those who deny the eternal Sonship of Christ still recognize and affirm His deity and His eternality.

Those who hold this view see the Sonship of Christ as not being an essential part of Who He is, but instead see it as simply being a role or a title or function that Christ assumed at His incarnation. They also teach that the Father became the Father at the time of the incarnation. Throughout history many conservative Christians have denied the doctrine of eternal Sonship. Some examples would include Ralph Wardlaw, Adam Clarke, Albert Barnes, Finis J. Dake, Walter Martin, and at one time John MacArthur. It is important to note, however, that several years ago John MacArthur changed his position on this doctrine and he now affirms the doctrine of eternal Sonship.

One of the verses commonly used to support Incarnational Sonship is Hebrews 1:5, which appears to speak of God the Father’s begetting of God the Son as an event that takes place at a specific point in time: “Thou art My Son, Today I have begotten Thee. And again. I will be a Father to Him. And He shall be a Son to Me.” Those who hold to the doctrine of incarnational Sonship point out two important aspects of this verse. 1—that “begetting” normally speaks of a person’s origin, and 2—that a Son is normally subordinate to his father. They reject the doctrine of eternal Sonship in an attempt to preserve the perfect equality and eternality of the Persons of the Triune Godhead. In order to do so, they must conclude that “Son” is simply a title or function that Christ took on at His incarnation and that “Sonship” refers to the voluntary submission that Christ took to the Father at His incarnation (Philippians 2:5-8John 5:19).

Some of the problems with the Incarnational Sonship of Christ are that this teaching confuses or destroys the internal relationships that exist within the Trinity, because if the Son is not eternally begotten by the Father, then neither did the Spirit eternally proceed from the Father through the Son. Also, if there is no Son prior to the incarnation, then there is no Father either; and yet throughout the Old Testament we see God being referred to as the Father of Israel. Instead of having a triune God eternally existing in three distinct Persons with three distinct names, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, those who hold to the doctrine of incarnational Sonship end up with a nameless Trinity prior to the incarnation, and we would be forced to say that God has chosen not to reveal Himself as He truly is, but only as He was to become. In other words, instead of actually revealing who He is, the Triune God instead chose to reveal Himself by the titles He would assume or the roles that He would take on and not who He really is. This is dangerously close to modalism and could easily lead to false teachings about the nature of God. One of the weaknesses of the doctrine of incarnational Sonship is that the basic relationships existing among the members of the Trinity are confused and diminished. Taken to its logical conclusion, denying the eternal Sonship of Christ reduces the Trinity from the relationship of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit to simply Number One, Number Two and Number Three Persons—with the numbers themselves being an arbitrary designation, destroying the God-given order and relationship that exists among the Persons of the Trinity.

God the Father created “the heavens and the earth and all that is in them” according to His own will, through His Son, Jesus Christ, by whom all things continue in existence and in operations (John 1:3Colossians 1:15-17Hebrews 1:2).

The 2nd Person of the Trinity as the God-man

  • In the incarnation (God becoming man) Christ surrendered/laid aside His prerogatives as God but nothing of the divine essence, either in degree or kind, instead subordinating Himself to the will of God the Father and accepting the limitations of humanity. In His incarnation, the eternally existing second person of the Trinity accepted all the essential characteristics of humanity and so became the God-man (Philippians 2:5-8Colossians 2:9).
  • Jesus Christ represents, perfectly, humanity and deity in indivisible oneness (Micah 5:2John 5:2314:9, 10Colossians 2:9).

         The Definition of the Council of Chalcedon (451 A.D)

Therefore, following the holy fathers, we all with one accord teach men to acknowledge one and the same Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, at once complete in Godhead and complete in manhood, truly God and truly man, consisting also of a reasonable soul and body; of one substance with the Father as regards his Godhead, and at the same time of one substance with us as regards his manhood; like us in all respects, apart from sin; as regards his Godhead, begotten of the Father before the ages, but yet as regards his manhood begotten, for us men and for our salvation, of Mary the Virgin, the God-bearer; one and the same Christ, Son, Lord, Only-begotten, recognized in two natures, without confusion, without change, without division, without separation; the distinction of natures being in no way annulled by the union, but rather the characteristics of each nature being preserved and coming together to form one person and subsistence, not as parted or separated into two persons, but one and the same Son and Only-begotten God the Word, Lord Jesus Christ; even as the prophets from earliest times spoke of him, and our Lord Jesus Christ himself taught us, and the creed of the fathers has handed down to us.

The Scriptures teach:

Why did God the Son become man?  Why did He subject Himself to His creatures and allow Himself to be humiliated?

  1. to fulfill God’s promises

Isaiah 9:6, Isaiah 7:14, Micah 5:2, Daniel 9:26

  1. to reveal the Father to man

God had been revealed as Creator and Lord…

now He is revealed to be Father, completing the revelation

  1. to become a faithful High Priest

a sinless High Priest to represent man

Hebrews 2:17-18, Hebrews 5:1-3, Hebrews 7:25-27

  1. to put away/put an end to sin

Hebrews 9:26, Mark 10:45, 1 John 3:5

Lev 16:20-22, John 1:29, Isaiah 53:6, 2 Corinthians 5:21

  1. to destroy the works of Satan

1 John 3:8, Hebrews 2:14-15, John 12:31

  1. to give us an example of holy living

1 Peter 2:21, 1 John 2:6 (saved then follow)

Awesome events with the incarnation of God the Son

  1. He emptied Himself

The humiliation of Christ began in His attitude  (Phil 2:6)

Showing us the necessity of an attitude of humility

His divine glory was veiled, but not surrendered  (Matt 17:1)

He voluntarily restricted His attributes of Deity in keeping with                   His purpose to live among men and all their limitations

i.e.  He remained “in the form of God” as He accepted also the                            nature of a servant

 

  1. He was made in the likeness of man

Flesh that was subject to weakness, pain, temptation, incredible limitations so that God could dwell among us (John 1:14)

but He did not take on man’s sinful nature  (Rom 8:3)

He did not exchange natures, He took an additional nature

During His time on Earth, The Lord Jesus Christ accomplished our redemption through the shedding of His blood and sacrificial death on the cross and that His death was voluntary, vicarious, substitutionary, propitiatory, and redemptive (John 10:15Romans 3:24, 255:81Peter 2:24). In the future, we will look at both of the major views on the Atonement, the traditional Reformed view known as Penal Substitutionary Atonement, and view known as Christus Victor. The two are often seen, needlessly, as being in opposition to each other. Both, however, are accurate portrayals of the Atonement.

On the basis of the efficacy of the death of our Lord Jesus Christ, the believing sinner is freed from the punishment, the penalty, the power, and one day the very presence of sin; and that he is declared righteous, given eternal life, and adopted into the family of God (Romasn 3:255:8, 92Corinthians 5:14, 151Peter 2:243:18). {This is the Penal Substitutionary Atonement}

Our justification is made sure by His literal, physical resurrection from the dead and the fact that He is now ascended to the right hand of the Father, where He mediates as our Advocate and High-Priest (Matthew 28:6Luke 24:38, 39Acts 2:30, 31Romans 4:258:34Hebrews 7:259:241 John 2:1).

In the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the grave, God confirmed the deity of His Son and gave proof that God has accepted the atoning work of Christ on the cross. Jesus’ bodily resurrection is also the guarantee of a future resurrection life for all believers (John 5:26-2914:19Romans 4:256:5-101 Corinthians 15:2023).

In the Resurrection to come, Jesus Christ will return to receive the church, which is His body, unto Himself at the Rapture and, after the Tribulation, returning with His church in glory, will establish His millennial kingdom on earth (Acts 1:9-111 Thessalonians 4:13-18Revelation 20).

The Lord Jesus Christ is the one through whom God will judge all mankind (John 5:22, 23):

  1. Believers (1 Corinthians 3:10-15;2 Corinthians 5:10);
  2. Living inhabitants of the earth at His glorious return (Matthew 25:31-46); and
  3. Unbelieving dead at the Great White Throne (Revelation 20:11-15).

As the mediator between God and man (1 Timothy 2:5), the head of His body the church (Ephesians 1:225:23Colossians 1:18), and the coming universal King who will reign on the throne of David (Isaiah 9:6, 7Ezekiel 37:24-28Luke 1:31-33), He is the final judge of all who fail to place their trust in Him as Lord and Savior (Matthew 25:14-46Acts 17:30, 31).

Foundations 3: The Majesty on High (God the Father)

Foundations 3: The Majesty on High (God the Father)

Introductory remarks

God the Father is the first person of the Trinity. (Deuteronomy 32:6, Psalm 68:5, Isaiah 64:8 Malachi 2:10 Matthew 6:9; 7:11; 23:9, Romans 8:15, 1 Corinthians 8:6 Ephesians 4:6 Hebrews 12:9, 1 Peter 1:17) That is to say that He is first in priority and first in authority. Since all three Persons have existed forever, the Father does not precede either the Son or Holy Spirit as to time or origination. All three have always existed in union with One another. God the Father orders and disposes all things according to His own purposes and grace (Ps 145:8, 91Co 8:6), which have God’s glory as their end.  He is the Creator of all things (Ge 1:1-31Eph 3:9). God the Father is truly our Redeemer in that He saves from sin all those who come to Him through Jesus Christ. (More on that later)

(We are endeavoring to provide the Classic Orthodox Protestant view of the Person of God)
Lesson Outline:

 

  1. Review: How do we know about God?
  2. General Revelation
  3. The natural world reveals God (Acts 14:15-17; Rom.1:19-23)
  4. Human Conscience testifies to the existence God (Rom.2:14-16)
  5. Special Revelation
  6. Miracles reveal God.
  7. God extends natural laws (Josh.10:12-14 – sun stood still)
  8. God supercedes natural laws (2 Kings 6 – axehead floated)
  9. Fulfilled prophecy reveals God.
  • T. (Is.43:28-45; Ezra 1:1-4 – Cyrus predicted)
  • T. (Micah 5:2; Matt.2:1 – birthplace of Christ)
  • Jesus Christ Himself reveals God. (Heb.1:1; John 1:18)
  • Scripture as a whole reveals God.

 

  1. Review: Can we prove God’s existence?
  2. The Bible assumes God’s existence rather than attempting to prove it (Gen.1:1).
  3. The natural world demands God’s existence (Ps.19; Is.40:26; Acts 14:17; Rom.1:19).
  4. Argumentation/Logical Conclusions to answer the skeptics and doubters
  5. Argument from Cosmology – How could there be anything if there wasn’t a Cause (God) who was Uncaused (Romans 1:20)? Quoting Dr. Sproul, “IF THERE EVER WAS A TIME WHEN ABSOLUTELY NOTHING EXISTED, ALL THERE COULD POSSIBLY BE NOW IS NOTHING.”
  6. Argument from Teleology – The mathematical precision and obvious intelligence in Nature demands a designer of infinitely superior intellect. (God – Psalm 19:1-6)?
  7. Moral argument –If there is no one to give a Law, who then is the arbiter of right and wrong? (God – Romans 2:14,15; James 4:12)?
  8. Ontological argument – Where do people get the idea of a Perfect Being (God) except from God Himself (Act 17:27; Romans 1:19)?

 

III. Can we describe or explain God? How do we do so? God has many perfect characteristics (attributes). Attributes are the characteristics that define the essence of the Godhead

  1. Incommunicable attributes (characteristics belonging only to God).
  2. Self-existence (Exodus 3:14, John 5:26).
  3. Immutability (Psalm 102:25-27; Ex.3:14; James 1:17) – God does not change His essence or plan. He can never be wiser, more holy, more just, more merciful, more truthful. Neither can God be any less of any of those as any change would make Him less than God. His plans and His purposes never change (Ps 33:11)
  4. Infinity
  5. Eternality – Infinite in time (Ps.90:2)
  6. Omnipresence – Infinite in space (Ps.139:7-11) Present everywhere at once (Jeremiah 23:23-24) Yet transcends His creation and as such He is always able to help us, His creatures (Ps 46:1, Matt 28:20) He is inescapable (Ps 139:7-10, 17)
  7. Holiness – The absence of evil and presence of purity (Lev.11:44; John 17:11; 1 John 1:5)
  8. Holy: God is separate from and exalted above all of His creatures God is free from all defilement, absolutely pure) Isaiah 6:3. Holiness is the foremost attribute of God – the attribute by which He especially wants to be known.God’s Throne is established upon His holiness, thereby regulating His love, power, and will

 

By God’s holiness we know:

  • There is great chasm between God and the sinner (Is 59:1-2 Hab 1:13)

 

  • Man must approach God through the merits of another if he is to be able to approach Him at all because man does not possess nor can he ever acquire the sinlessness necessary for access to God (Rom 5:1-2, 6-8, Eph 2:1-9, 18, Heb 10:19-20)
  • We must approach God with humility, awe and reverence (Heb 12:28)
  1. Righteous and just

God has instituted a moral government in the world, imposed just laws on His creatures, and attached sanctions for disobedience. God cannot make a law, establish a penalty, and then not follow through when the law is disobeyed. Punishment must be given, either personally or vicariously. The purpose of punishment is to maintain justice (Is 53:10, Psalm 145:17)

  1. God has communicable attributes (characteristics found in a limited degree in man).
  2. Intellect
  3. Omniscience – God knows all things actual and potential. The Bible does not explain this but does assume it as fact (Ps.139:16; Matt. 11:21).
  4. All-wise – God acts upon His knowledge to always do what is infinitely best (Rom.11:33-36).
  5. Attributes of Emotion
  6. God is Love – God is incomprehensibly active for our good (1 John 4:8).
  7. Mercy – concern, compassion (James 5:11)
  8. Long suffering – self-restrained when provoked (2 Peter 3:9,15)
  9. God is just – God is perfectly righteous and exact in His dealings with man (Ps.19:9).
  • Grace- (Definition and comments from Wayne Kinde.) A special characteristic of God involving many of His major loving characteristics
  • OT uses chesed and chen. There are multiple different ways that these are translated in the OT. Examples: love, mercy, compassion, tenderheartedness, kindness, grace, favor, etc.
  • Septuagint (Greek OT/LXX) renderings of charis and what Hebrew words were used for this very generic and bland Greek word. This will, again, show a huge diversity in the usage (FAR beyond, “unmerited favor”).
  • In the Hellenistic period (maybe best between 200BC-0BC). How was it used extensively prior the the NT writings. There you will see quite again a wide variety of usages, from love, mercy, peace, compassion, and favor.
  • In the NT, what is the overacrching sense of the word based on the above and each context.

The point: looking at the historical data from #1-#4 above, I conclude that the word “grace” demonstrates a major character of the Trinity regarding many of the major loving characteristics. Thus, it is by this grace (His amazing love, compassion, mercy, tenderheartedness, etc.) that we are saved (Eph 2:8).

Another of my teachers puts it this way: Grace is God’s goodness manifested toward the guilty undeserving, to those deserving His justice instead 

  1. Will
  2. Omnipotence (Job 42:2) God is able to do anything He wills. He will not do anything against His nature (sin) and He cannot do anything that is logically self-contradictory. Because God can only do what is in harmony with His nature He cannot
    • lie (Titus 1:2)
    • repent from evil (Num 23:19)
    • deny Himself (2 Tim 2:13)
    • be tempted to sin (James 1:13)
  3. Sovereignty (2 Chron.29:11,12) As the only absolute and omnipotent ruler in the universe, He is sovereign in creation, providence, and redemption (Ps 103:19Ro 11:36). He has decreed for His own glory all things that come to pass (Eph 1:11). He continually upholds, directs, and governs all creatures and events (1Ch 29:11). In His sovereignty He is neither author nor approver of sin (Hab 1:13), nor does He abridge the accountability of moral, intelligent creatures (1Pe 1:17). He has graciously chosen from eternity past those whom He would have as His own (Eph 1:4-6);
  4. God as Father

His fatherhood involves both His position within the Trinity and His relationship with mankind.

  1. As Creator He is Father to all men (Eph 4:6),
  2. Spiritual Father only to believers (Ro 8:142Co 6:18).

He adopts as His own all those who come to Him; and He becomes, upon adoption, Father to His own (Jn 1:12Ro 8:15Gal 4:5Heb 12:5-9).